**Quantum Hall effect** — The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductivity σ… … Wikipedia

**quantum Hall effect** — noun An effect marked by the quantization of the Hall resistance, observed in two dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic field … Wiktionary

**Fractional quantum Hall effect** — The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is a physical phenomenon in which a certain system behaves as if it were composed of particles with charge smaller than the elementary charge. Its discovery and explanation were recognized by the 1998… … Wikipedia

**Hall effect** — For the Colombian band, see The Hall Effect (band). The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular … Wikipedia

**Quantum spin Hall effect** — The quantum spin Hall state is a state of matter proposed to exist in special, two dimensional, semiconductors with spin orbit coupling. The quantum spin Hall state of matter is the cousin of the integer quantum Hall state, but, unlike the latter … Wikipedia

**Quantum electronics** — is the area of physics dealing with the effects of quantum mechanics on the behaviour of electrons in matter, and their interactions with photons.It is today rarely considered a subfield in its own right, as it has been absorbed by other fields:… … Wikipedia

**Quantum field theory** — In quantum field theory (QFT) the forces between particles are mediated by other particles. For instance, the electromagnetic force between two electrons is caused by an exchange of photons. But quantum field theory applies to all fundamental… … Wikipedia

**Quantum well** — A quantum well is a potential well with only discrete energy values. One technology to create quantization is to confine particles, which were originally free to move in three dimensions, to two dimensions, forcing them to occupy a planar region … Wikipedia

**Quantum point contact** — A Quantum Point Contact (QPC) is a narrow constriction between two wide electrically conducting regions, of a width comparable to the electronic wavelength (nano to micrometer). Quantum point contacts were first reported in 1988 by a Dutch group… … Wikipedia

**Quantum mechanics** — For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics … Wikipedia